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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Phenytoin by Simple, Rapid, Accurate, Highly Sensitive and Novel Method and Its Clinical Applications

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 13 ]

Author(s):

Abdul S. Shaikh and Ruichen Guo*   Pages 1098 - 1105 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background: Phenytoin has very challenging pharmacokinetic properties. To prevent its toxicity and ensure efficacy, continuous therapeutic monitoring is required. It is hard to get a simple, accurate, rapid, easily available, economical and highly sensitive assay in one method for therapeutic monitoring of phenytoin.

Objective: The present study is directed towards establishing and validating a simpler, rapid, an accurate, highly sensitive, novel and environment friendly liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for offering rapid and reliable TDM results of phenytoin in epileptic patients to physicians and clinicians for making immediate and rational decision.

Methods: 27 epileptics patients with uncontrolled seizures or suspected of non-compliance or toxicity of phenytoin were selected and advised for TDM of phenytoin by neurologists of Qilu Hospital Jinan, China. The LC/MS assay was used for performing of therapeutic monitoring of phenytoin. The Agilent 1100 LC/MS system was used for TDM. The mixture of Ammonium acetate 5mM: Methanol at (35: 65 v/v) was used for the composition of mobile phase. The Diamonsil C18 (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) column was used for the extraction of analytes in plasma. The samples were prepared with one step simple protein precipitation method. The technique was validated with the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH).

Results: The calibration curve demonstrated decent linearity within (0.2-20 µg/mL) concentration range with linearity equation, y= 0.0667855 x +0.00241785 and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.99928. The specificity, recovery, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability results were within the accepted limits. The concentration of 0.2 µg/mL was observed as lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), which is 12.5 times lower than the currently available enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) for measurement of phenytoin in epilepsy patients.

Conclusion: A rapid, simple, economical, precise, highly sensitive and novel LC/MS assay has been established, validated and applied successfully in TDM of 27 epileptics patients. It was alarmingly found that TDM results of all these patients were out of safe range except two patients. However, it needs further evaluation. Besides TDM, the stated method can also be applied in bioequivalence, pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics and pharmacovigilance studies.

Keywords:

Antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy, LC/MS, novel, phenytoin, rapid.

Affiliation:

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan

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