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Diagnostic Biomarkers of Epilepsy

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Chiara Sueri, Sara Gasparini, Simona Balestrini, Angelo Labate, Antonio Gambardella, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Silvia Casarotto, Francesca Pittau, Michele Trimboli, Vittoria Cianci, Michele Ascoli, Salvatore M. Cavalli, Giulia Ferrigno, Umberto Aguglia* and Edoardo Ferlazzo   Pages 440 - 450 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy are objectively measurable variables associated with the development of epilepsy or the propensity to generate seizures. Identification of biomarkers could be helpful for differential diagnosis and for tailored therapeutic approaches.

Objective: This review focuses on diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy, including genetic, serological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological variables.

Methods: References were mainly identified through PubMed search until December 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies.

Results: Several promising diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy exist, with causative value or predicting liability to develop seizures after acquired brain injuries. Short non-coding RNAs are deregulated in serum and cerebral tissue of epilepsy subjects: these molecules are promising diagnostic biomarkers, being easy to assess and reproducible. Advanced imaging techniques may allow identification of subtle epileptogenic lesions, often with prognostic value. Novel electrophysiological biomarkers of epilepsy include perturbed cortical connectivity and excitability induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation, as well as high-frequency oscillations detected by intracranial and scalp electroencephalographic recordings. Finally, serological biomarkers may support the differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and non-epileptic events.

Conclusion: Ongoing research on diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy is promising and future preclinical and clinical studies are warranted.

Keywords:

Genetic, miRNA, HFO, TMS-EEG, prolactin, MRI, seizures.

Affiliation:

Regional Epilepsy Centre, Great Metropolitan Hospital, Reggio Calabria, Regional Epilepsy Centre, Great Metropolitan Hospital, Reggio Calabria, Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, and Epilepsy Society, Chalfont-St-Peter, Bucks, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Græcia” University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Germaneto, Catanzaro, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Græcia” University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Germaneto, Catanzaro, Science of Health Department, School of Medicine, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Catanzaro, Science of Health Department, School of Medicine, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Catanzaro, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences , Institution de Lavigny, Vaud, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Græcia” University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Germaneto, Catanzaro, Regional Epilepsy Centre, Great Metropolitan Hospital, Reggio Calabria, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Græcia” University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Germaneto, Catanzaro, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Græcia” University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Germaneto, Catanzaro, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Græcia” University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Germaneto, Catanzaro, Regional Epilepsy Centre, Great Metropolitan Hospital, Reggio Calabria, Regional Epilepsy Centre, Great Metropolitan Hospital, Reggio Calabria



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