Taj Yeruva and Chi H. Lee* Pages 17 - 31 ( 15 )
In this review, the composition and regulation of vaginal microbiome that displays an apparent microbial diversity and interacts with other microbiota in the body are presented. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of vaginal microflora in which lactobacillus species typically dominate has been delineated from the perspective of maintaining gynecologic ecosystem and prevention of onset of bacteriostatic vaginosis (BV) and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) including HIV-1 transmission. The interactions between NO and vaginal microbiome and its influence on the levels of Lactobacillus, hormones and other components are described. The recent progress, such as NO drugs, probiotic Lactobacilli and Lactobacillus microbots, that can be explored to alleviate abnormality of vagina microbiome, is also discussed. An identification of Oral-GI-Vagina axis, as well as the relationship between NO and Lactobacillus regulation in the healthy or pathological status of vagina microbiome, surely offers the advanced drug delivery option against BV or STD including AIDS.
Vaginal microbiome, nitric oxide, lactobacillus, personalized delivery systems, probiotics, delivery strategies.
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, 64108, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, 64108