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Tuberculosis: Current Status, Diagnosis, Treatment and Development of Novel Vaccines

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Jyoti Yadav, Sonali Verma, Darshna Chaudhary, Pawan K. Jaiwal and Ranjana Jaiwal*   Pages 446 - 458 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that mainly affects the lungs and spreads to other organs of the body through the haematogenous route. It is one of the ten major causes of mortality worldwide. India has the highest incidence of new- and multidrug-resistant (MDR) - TB cases in the world. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the vaccine commonly available against TB. BCG does offer some protection against serious forms of TB in childhood but its protective effect wanes with age. Many new innovative strategies are being trailed for the development of effective and potent vaccines like mucosal- and epitope-based vaccines, which may replace BCG or boost BCG responses. The use of nanotechnology for diagnosis and treatment of TB is also in the pipeline along with many other vaccines, which are under clinical trials. Further, in-silico models were developed for finding new drug targets and designing drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). These models offer the benefit of computational experiments which are easy, inexpensive and give quick results. This review will focus on the available treatments and new approaches to develop potent vaccines for the treatment of TB.

Keywords:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB, MDR-TB, BCG, mucosal vaccine, epitope-based vaccine, in-silico models for TB, nanotechnology-based vaccines.

Affiliation:

Department of Zoology, M.D. University, Rohtak-124001, Department of Zoology, M.D. University, Rohtak-124001, Centre for Biotechnology, M.D. University, Rohtak-124001, Centre for Biotechnology, M.D. University, Rohtak-124001, Department of Zoology, M.D. University, Rohtak-124001

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