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Plant Phenolics and Lectins as Vaccine Adjuvants

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 15 ]

Author(s):

Hernández-Ramos Reyna-Margarita, Castillo-Maldonado Irais*, Rivera-Guillén Mario-Alberto, Ramírez-Moreno Agustina, Serrano-Gallardo Luis-Benjamín and Pedroza-Escobar David*   Pages 1236 - 1243 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background: The immune system is responsible for providing protection to the body against foreign substances. The immune system divides into two types of immune responses to study its mechanisms of protection: 1) Innate and 2) Adaptive. The innate immune response represents the first protective barrier of the organism that also works as a regulator of the adaptive immune response, if evaded the mechanisms of the innate immune response by the foreign substance the adaptive immune response takes action with the consequent antigen neutralization or elimination. The adaptive immune response objective is developing a specific humoral response that consists in the production of soluble proteins known as antibodies capable of specifically recognizing the foreign agent; such protective mechanism is induced artificially through an immunization or vaccination. Unfortunately, the immunogenicity of the antigens is an intrinsic characteristic of the same antigen dependent on several factors.

Conclusion: Vaccine adjuvants are chemical substances of very varied structure that seek to improve the immunogenicity of antigens. The main four types of adjuvants under investigation are the following: 1) Oil emulsions with an antigen in solution, 2) Pattern recognition receptors activating molecules, 3) Inflammatory stimulatory molecules or activators of the inflammasome complex, and 4) Cytokines. However, this paper addresses the biological plausibility of two phytochemical compounds as vaccine adjuvants: 5) Lectins, and 6) Plant phenolics whose characteristics, mechanisms of action and disadvantages are addressed. Finally, the immunological usefulness of these molecules is discussed through immunological data to estimate effects of plant phenolics and lectins as vaccine adjuvants, and current studies that have implanted these molecules as vaccine adjuvants, demonstrating the results of this immunization.

Keywords:

Plant phenolics, lectins, vaccine adjuvants, immune system, innate immune response, adaptive immune response.

Affiliation:

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de la Facultad de Medicina Unidad Torreón. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila (UA de C), Torreón, Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de la Facultad de Medicina Unidad Torreón. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila (UA de C), Torreón, Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de la Facultad de Medicina Unidad Torreón. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila (UA de C), Torreón, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Unidad Torreón, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila (UA de C), Torreón, Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de la Facultad de Medicina Unidad Torreón. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila (UA de C), Torreón, Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de la Facultad de Medicina Unidad Torreón. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila (UA de C), Torreón



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