Olakunle J. Onaolapo, Oluwole I. Adeyemi, Omolola J. Amujoyegbe, Eunice A. Fasola, Anthony T. Olofinnade and Adejoke Y. Onaolapo* Pages 158 - 168 ( 11 )
Background: Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LR) is a protease inhibitor used human immunodeficiency virus infection management. There have been issues regarding the effects of fat on LR efficacy and the possibility of neurological deficits following prolonged use, there is however a dearth of research examining this.Aim: The effects of LR administered with normal or High-Fat Diet (HFD) on neurobehaviour, neurochemistry and oxidative stress in healthy mice were examined. Methods: Mice were randomly-assigned into eight groups of ten (n=10) animals each. The groups were normal control [Standard Diet, (SD)], HFD control, 3 groups of LR incorporated into SD (100/25, 200/50 and 400/100 mg/kg of feed), and 3 groups of LR with HFD (100/25, 200/50 and 400/100 mg/kg of feed). Mice were fed daily for six weeks, following which open field, elevated-plus maze (EPM), radial-arm maze and Y-maze behaviours were scored. Twenty-four hours after tests, mice were euthanised and brains were homogenised for estimation of oxidative stress, L-glutamate level and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results: LR was associated with a reduction in HFD-induced weight gain, suppression of open-field behaviours with SD, and counteraction of HFD-induced changes in working-memory, open-field and anxiety-related behaviours. Also, LR causes increased lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity; and a decrease in brain glutamate, irrespective of dietary composition. Increased fat catabolism leading to increased oxidative stress could possibly account for the weight changes, while a decrease in brain glutamate could account for the changes in open-field behaviours in mice fed SD. Conclusion: LR alters neurobehaviour, oxidative stress and brain glutamate in mice; however, only its effects on neurobehaviour are affected by diet.
Antiretroviral, diet, glutamate, nutrition, novelty-induced behaviours, protease inhibitor.
Behavioural Neuroscience and Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Department of Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Department of Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Lagos state Ikeja, Ikeja, Behavioural Neuroscience and Neurobiology Unit, Department of Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State