Ramya Ramchandran, Swetha Ramesh, Anviksha A , RamLal Thakur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti and Utpal Roy* Pages 438 - 450 ( 13 )
Background: Antifungal cyclic lipopeptides, bioactive metabolites produced by many species of the genus Bacillus, are promising alternatives to synthetic fungicides and antibiotics for the biocontrol of human pathogenic fungi. In a previous study, the co- production of five antifungal lipopeptides homologues (designated as AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4 and AF5) by the producer strain Bacillus subtilis RLID 12.1 using unoptimized medium was reported; though the two homologues AF3 and AF5 differed by 14 Da and in fatty acid chain length were found effective in antifungal action, the production/ yield rate of these two lipopeptides determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography was less in the unoptimized media.Methods: In this study, the production/yield enhancement of the two compounds AF3 and AF5 was specifically targeted. Following the statistical optimization (Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs) of media formulation, temperature and growth conditions, the production of AF3 and AF5 was improved by about 25.8- and 7.4-folds, respectively under static conditions. Results: To boost the production of these two homologous lipopeptides in the optimized media, heat-inactivated Candida albicans cells were used as a supplement resulting in 34- and 14-fold increase of AF3 and AF5, respectively. Four clinical Candida auris isolates had AF3 and AF5 MICs (100 % inhibition) ranging between 4 and 16 μg/ml indicating the lipopeptide’s clinical potential. To determine the in vitro pharmacodynamic potential of AF3 and AF5, time-kill assays were conducted which showed that AF3 (at 4X and 8X concentrations) at 48h exhibited mean log reductions of 2.31 and 3.14 CFU/ml of C. albicans SC 5314, respectively whereas AF5 at 8X concentration showed a mean log reduction of 2.14 CFU/ml. Conclusion: With the increasing threat of multidrug-resistant yeasts and fungi, these antifungal lipopeptides produced by optimized method promise to aid in the development of novel antifungal that targets disease-causing fungi with improved efficacy.
Antifungal lipopeptide, ANOVA, B. subtilis, Box-Behnken design, Plackett-Burman design, production, time-kill assay.
Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani K.K Birla Goa Campus, Goa 403726, Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani K.K Birla Goa Campus, Goa 403726, Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani K.K Birla Goa Campus, Goa 403726, Department of Microbiology, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science & Research, Balawala, Dehradun, Department of Medical Microbiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani K.K Birla Goa Campus, Goa 403726