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Plant Phenolics as Pathogen-Carrier Immunogenicity Modulator Haptens

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 10 ]

Author(s):

Castillo-Maldonado Irais, Sevilla-González María-de-la-Luz, Delgadillo-Guzmán Dealmy, Ramírez-Moreno Agustina, Cabral-Hipólito Nidia, Rivera-Guillén Mario-Alberto, Serrano-Gallardo Luis-Benjamín*, Vega-Menchaca María-del-Carmen and Pedroza-Escobar David*   Pages 897 - 905 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Pathogens use multiple mechanisms to disrupt cell functioning in their host and allow pathogenesis. These mechanisms involve communication between the pathogen and the host cell through protein-protein interactions.

Methods: Protein-protein interactions chains referred to as signal transduction pathways are the processes by which a chemical or physical signal transmits through a cell as series of molecular events so the pathogen needs to intercept these molecular pathways at few positions to induce pathogenesis such as pathogen viability, infection or hypersensitivity.

Results: The pathogen nodes of interception are not necessarily the most immunogenic; so that novel immunogenicity-improvement strategies need to be developed thought a chemical conjugation of the pathogen-carrier nodes to develop an efficient immune response in order to block pathogenesis. On the other hand, if pathogen-carriers are immunogens; toleration ought to be induced by this conjugation avoiding hypersensitivity. Thus, this paper addresses the biological plausibility of plant-phenolics as pathogen-carrier immunogenicity modulator haptens.

Conclusion: The plant-phenolic compounds have in their structure functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, ester, or ether, capable of reacting with the amino or carbonyl groups of the amino acids of a pathogen-carrier to form conjugates. Besides, the varied carbon structures these phenolic compounds have; it is possible to alter the pathogen-carrier related factors that determine the immunogenicity: 1) Structural complexity, 2) Molecular size, 3) Structural heterogeneity, 4) Accessibility to antigenic determinants or epitopes, 5) Optical configuration, 6) Physical state, or 7) Molecular rigidity.

Keywords:

Plant phenolics, pathogen-carrier, immunogenicity, haptens, immunogen, toleragen.

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biomedical Research of the Faculty of Medicine, Torreon Unit, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon, Department of Conduct, Higher School of Medicine, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Torreon Unit Medicine, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon, School of Sciences Biological Unit Torreon, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biomedical Research of the Faculty of Medicine, Torreon Unit, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biomedical Research of the Faculty of Medicine, Torreon Unit, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biomedical Research of the Faculty of Medicine, Torreon Unit, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon, School of Sciences Chemistry, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Gomez Palacio, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biomedical Research of the Faculty of Medicine, Torreon Unit, Autonomous University of Coahuila (UA de C), Torreon

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