Kaleem Ullah, Shujaat Ali Khan, Abdul Mannan, Romana Khan, Ghulam Murtaza* and Muhammad Arfat Yameen* Pages 948 - 954 ( 7 )
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common infectious agent in the community and hospitals. Infections with S. aureus are now becoming difficult to be treated by using conventional antibiotics due to its emerging methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain.Objective: In the present study, MRSA was isolated from clinical samples and evaluated for resistance against different antibiotics, TiO2 nanoparticles, and their combinations. Methods: Clinical samples were collected from Ayub Medical Complex (AMC), Abbottabad, Pakistan, and identified by different biochemical tests and polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and vancomycin was found out by agar dilution method while the broth dilution method was used for the MIC of TiO2 nanoparticles and their combinations with erythromycin. Results: All 13/100 (13%) MRSA were successfully identified. All isolates were susceptible to quinupristin/ dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin, while the highest resistance was seen with erythromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline. MIC showed high resistance against ampicillin (0.25-512 mg/L) and erythromycin (0.25-1024 mg/L). Conclusion: The MIC value of 2 mM TiO2 nanoparticles was found to be the most effective concentration after 12 h of incubation, while the combination of erythromycin with 3 mM TiO2 nanoparticles was found to be more potent which significantly lowered down the MIC of erythromycin to 2-16 mg/L.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, erythromycin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic susceptibility testing, minimum inhibitory concentration.
Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus 54000, Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060