Atieh Hashemi* and Gilar Gorji-bahri Pages 1186 - 1203 ( 18 )
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that act as one of the main regulators of gene expression. They are involved in maintaining a proper balance of diverse processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell death in normal cells. Cancer biology can also be affected by these molecules by modulating the expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Thus, miRNA based anticancer therapy is currently being developed either alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents used in cancer management, aiming at promoting tumor regression and increasing cure rate. Access to large quantities of RNA agents can facilitate RNA research and development. In addition to currently used in vitro methods, fermentation-based approaches have recently been developed, which can cost‐effectively produce biological RNA agents with proper folding needed for the development of RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, a major challenge in translating preclinical studies to clinical for miRNA-based cancer therapy is the efficient delivery of these agents to target cells. Targeting miRNAs/anti-miRNAs using antibodies and/or peptides can minimize cellular and systemic toxicity. Here, we provide a brief review of miRNA in the following aspects: biogenesis and mechanism of action of miRNAs, the role of miRNAs in cancer as tumor suppressors or oncogenes, the potential of using miRNAs as novel and promising therapeutics, miRNA-mediated chemo-sensitization, and currently utilized methods for the in vitro and in vivo production of RNA agents. Finally, an update on the viral and non-viral delivery systems is addressed.
MicroRNAs, biogenesis, cancer, oncomirs, chemo-sensitization, bioengineered non-coding RNA agent, delivery systems.
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran