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Gallic Acid Protects from Acute Multiorgan Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 14 ]


Samrat Rakshit, Satendra K. Nirala and Monika Bhadauria*   Pages 1489 - 1504 ( 16 )


Background: Secondary metabolites of plants, the polyphenols, play a vital role in protection from many health problems in human beings. Structurally favored phytochemicals may be studied to protect multiorgan injury. At pharmacological doses, gallic acid is nontoxic to mammals and is generally absorbed in the intestine.

Aims: In this present study, gallic acid was evaluated for its protective efficacy against lipo polysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced multiorgan injury, i.e., liver, kidney and brain.

Methods: Three different doses of gallic acid (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg p.o.) were administered to the experimental animals for 6 consecutive days, followed by exposure to LPS (50 μg/kg I.P.) and D-GalN (300 mg/kg I.P.) on the 6th day.

Results: Exposure to LPS and D-GalN resulted in increased oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Altered hematology and serology due to LPS and D-GalN were restored towards control by gallic acid. Declined antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase due to injurious effects of LPS and D-GalN were rejuvenated by gallic acid.

Discussion: Exposure to LPS and D-GalN severely increased lipid peroxidation, CYP2E1 activity and tissue lipids while lowered protein content. Gallic acid restored all these parameters towards control in dose dependent manner and 20 mg/kg dose provided the best protection. Histological study showed improved histoarchitecture of liver, kidney and brain that supported biochemical endpoints.

Conclusion: Gallic acid minimized oxidative stress and provided best protection at 20 mg/kg dose against LPS and D-GalN induced multi organ acute injury.


Gallic acid, biochemical, lipopolysaccharide, D-galactosamine, antioxidant, multiorgan injury.


Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, 495009 (C.G.), Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Rural Technology and Social Development Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur 495009 (C.G.), Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, 495009 (C.G.)

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