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Challenges in Oral Drug Delivery and Applications of Lipid Nanoparticles as Potent Oral Drug Carriers for Managing Cardiovascular Risk Factors

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 7 ]


Neslihan Üstündağ Okur, Panoraia I. Siafaka and Evren Homan Gökçe*   Pages 884 - 897 ( 14 )


Background: The oral application of drugs is the most popular route through which the systemic effect can be achieved. Nevertheless, oral administration is limited by difficulties related to the physicochemical properties of the drug molecule, including low aqueous solubility, instability, low permeability, and rapid metabolism, all of which result in low and irregular oral bioavailability.

Objective: The enhancement of oral bioavailability of drug molecules with such properties could lead to extreme complications in drug preparations. Oral lipid-based nanoparticles seem to possess extensive advantages due to their ability to increase the solubility, simplifying intestinal absorption and decrease or eradicate the effect of food on the absorption of low soluble, lipophilic drugs and therefore improving the oral bioavailability.

Method: The present review provides a summary of the general theory of lipid-based nanoparticles, their preparation methods, as well as their oral applications. Moreover, oral drug delivery challenges are discussed.

Results: According to this review, the most frequent types of lipid-based nanoparticle, the solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers are potent oral carriers due to their ability to penetrate the oral drug adsorption barriers. Moreover, such lipid nanoparticles can be beneficial drug carriers against cardiovascular risk disorders as diabetes, hypertension, etc.

Conclusion: In this review, the most current and promising studies involving Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as oral drug carriers are reported aiming to assist researchers who focus their research on lipid-based nanoparticles.


Oral drug delivery, bioavailability, nanoscience, lipid nanoparticles, nanotechnology.


Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir

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