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Nitrite and Nitrate Levels in Groundwater, Water Distribution Network, Bottled Water and Juices in Iran: A Systematic Review

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 10 ]

Author(s):

Maasoumeh Marhamati, Asma Afshari, Behzad Kiani, Behrooz Jannat and Mohammad Hashemi*   Pages 1325 - 1337 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Background: Nitrate and nitrite can get into the body through the consumption of contaminated water either directly or indirectly. The accumulation of these compounds in the body, in the long run, leads to health problems, for example, digestive disorders, cancers, and even death threats in children. The aim of this review was to investigate nitrate and nitrite pollution levels in drinking water and fruit juices in Iran.

Methods: In this review, data were collected through searching the Scientific Information Database, Science-Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran databases using the keywords Nitrate, Nitrite, Drinking water, Drinking Water Resources, Juice and Iran. Finally, the location of the studies was geocoded through the Google My Maps (https://www.google.com/mymaps) software.

Results: Studies clearly indicated that the juices are safe in terms of nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite values were less than the national and international standards in all samples of bottled drinking water except for a few of the studies. The results of the reviewed studies also indicated that the nitrate content was higher than that written on the label in 96% of the samples, and nitrite was not labeled in 80% of them. The nitrate quantity was higher than the permissible limit in the water distribution network of Bushehr, Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces. Talesh, Ardabil, Hashtgerd, Divandareh, and Kerman cities had high nitrate levels in more than 50% of wells.

Conclusion: Using nitrogen fertilizers and the lack of a wastewater treatment system were the main reasons for the presence of nitrate and nitrite.

Keywords:

Juice, Nitrate, Nitrite, Bottled water, Water distribution network, Groundwater.

Affiliation:

Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad



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